Property disputes come in many different forms. Examples include individuals litigating the ownership rights of a property (land title), the location of the ownership line that separates them from one (land boundary), one’s right to use the land of another (easements), or even riparian (water) or littoral boundaries. 

Determining the interests and locations of each parcel when litigating property disputes often requires an extensive search of the Public Record for survey maps, survey plats, survey field notes, and property deeds. 

Once the deeds, descriptions, and maps have been found and analyzed, modern technology such as total stations and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) allow the surveyor to accurately retrace the property boundaries. 

No matter your dispute, Dr. Nettleman, Surveyor Expert Witness, is available to help solve your boundary, title, and easement questions using his extensive experience.

Land Title

Ownership of land ownership rights, otherwise known as land title, is often disputed due to mistakes in a property’s chain-of-title, poorly written conveyances, or the grantor deeding more than they officially owned. 

Interpreting a property deed may sound simple, and the intent of the deed is often clear from the plain language of it, but latent and patent ambiguities often exist in real property descriptions that confuse the issues.

When errors or ambiguities are found in property deeds, retracing the chain-of-title for the property and its adjoining properties is often required. The county courthouse is a good starting point but few professionals realize that local utilities, state record clearinghouses, and private repositories are goldmines for real property records.

Dr. Nettleman has testified about the interpretation of property deeds and legal descriptions many times. Contact Dr. Nettleman below to learn about how he can help you resolve your title issues.



Non-possessory rights – otherwise known as easements, licenses, real property covenants, and equitable servitudes – are some of the most heavily disputed and litigated topics of land surveyor practice and land law.

When a person is allowed to use the land of another, these land-sharing arrangements breed conflict. Is the easement for the exclusive use of the benefiting party? May the landowner use the same parcel of land? Can the user expand the road or install a fiber optic cable alongside the power line?

The most common issue with easements is the holder not using the easement for the intended purpose as stated in the conveyance. A good example is when an easement for a goat path was created over a century ago but a group of local school children began using the same easement to commute from a subdivision to the middle school. Does this easement still exist and if so, can the children use it? 

Dr. Nettleman, Professional Land Surveyor, has helped many clients resolve easement and covenant issues. Contact him today to learn how he can help you.


Land Boundaries make-up the majority of land case law and often spark frustration, anger, and consternation between neighbors.

Over a century ago, Robert Frost said that “Fences Make Good Neighbors.” Oh, how true that is, but many times fences get mistaken for land boundaries and lawsuits ensue.

Once a land boundary is created by the original surveyor, that boundary is fixed in perpetuity, with the exception of judicial findings such as laches, estoppel or boundaries by agreement.

After such creation, the only role that land surveyors have is to “re-find” the boundaries and re-mark the lines for future generations of land owners.

These land boundaries are “re-found” when surveyors locate boundaries by researching the written records for the subject property and its adjoinders, performing on-the-ground field surveys to search for, and then reconciling the written and physical evidence to find the true boundary of the property. But when the written and physical records conflict or are ambiguous, boundary uncertainty follows. 

Let Dr. Nettleman, Professional Land Surveyor, help unravel the mystery by contacting him below.


Riparian Ownership and Use

Locating the side and lateral boundaries of riparian ownership is difficult!

The terra firma adjoining the water is constantly moving and shifting, but the ownership lines that extend into the water are fixed by centuries of jurisprudence. 

Did your property experience a build-up of sediment or a major allusive event? Even more, the evidence is required before finding the boundary. These subjects can be some of the most frustrating and time-consuming land disputes. 

Even more important than riparian ownership is the allocation of docking rights. There are many methods to allocate riparian use between neighbors, and choosing the correct method is critical to properly locating lines of use. 

Contact Dr. Nettleman today to discuss all the riparian allocation methods available to you.

Standards of Practice

Land Surveyors are considered Professionals in almost every state. Therefore, surveyors are owed their clients and the Pubic a duty of reasonable care as measured by a reasonable PLS.

Proving whether a Professional Surveyor fell below that duty is often a task requiring another PLS to testify in court.

Everything a land surveyor is required to do is dictated by survey textbooks, state case law, and statute. 

The majority of surveyors practice within these rules and do a great job. But some surveyors injure their clients by failing to meet minimum standards. 

Determining if the surveyor met their professional duty can often be difficult and confusing. 

Dr. Nettleman has testified for both plaintiffs and defendants concerning land survey negligence and professional responsibility issues many times, contact him today to learn more about what land surveyors are required to do.